言论自由(Freedom of Speech)


目前,如果讓平民只說一句話,那就是:“言論自由(Freedom of Speech)”!


平民泰山玉皇頂兩中華旗(Pingmin on the Jade Emperor Peak of Mount Tai with Two Flags of China, 20131004)(攝影:紅衛兄)

平民泰山玉皇頂兩中華旗(Pingmin on the Jade Emperor Peak of Mount Tai with Two Flags of China, 20131004)(攝影:紅衛兄)

我可以以我认为合适的方式行动。我深信每个人都应该这样,即担负起自己的责任。有人会反对说这没有用处。我的回答十分简单:有用。” ——瓦茨拉夫·哈维尔(Václav Havel, 19361005 - 20111218)

1. 宪法第三十五条(The Article 35 of Constitution of The PRC)

简体中文(Simplified Chinese)


—— 《中华人民共和国宪法》第三十五条


Citizens of the People’s Republic of China enjoy freedom of speech, of the press, of assembly, of association, of procession and of demonstration.

—— The Article 35, Constitution of The People’s Republic of China(PRC, People’s ROC)


大陆现行的 1982 年宪法,是由 1980 年 8 月 18 日时任领导人邓小平提出全面修宪建议,经 1980 年 9 月成立的宪法修改委员会,以 1954 年宪法为基础,主要在时任全国人民代表大会常委会副委员长和宪法修改委员会副主任委员彭真的主持下起草,于 1982 年 11 月完成,到第五届全国人民代表大会第五次会议于 1982 年 12 月 4 日通过并公布施行,随后历经 1988、1993、1999、2004 和 2018 五次修正(最近一次为 2018 年 3 月 11 日第十三届全国人民代表大会第一次会议通过并公布施行)。

其中,宪法第 35 条,自 1982 年以来未曾变过。

2. 论自由(On Liberty)

以下摘自约翰·穆勒(John Stuart Mill)《论自由(On Liberty)》(英文原版于 1859 年在英国出版,最早由清朝末期严复先生翻译并以《群己权界论》为书名于 1903 年在国内出版,以下中文翻译则摘自孟凡礼所译版(2011 年出版2019 年再版,推荐;另,感兴趣的话,可参阅伯林的《自由论》姜新艳的《穆勒:为了人类的幸福》等):

On Liberty


I. Introductory
Ⅱ. Of the Liberty of Thought and Discussion
Ⅲ. Of Individuality, as One of the Elements of Well-Being
Ⅳ. Of the Limits to the Authority of Society over the Individual
Ⅴ. Applications



第一章 引论
第二章 论思想言论自由
第三章 论作为幸福因素之一的个性自由
第四章 论社会权力之于个人的限度
第五章 论自由原则的应用

The only part of the conduct of any one, for which he is amenable to society, is that which concerns others. In the part which merely concerns himself, his independence is, of right, absolute. Over himself, over his own body and mind, the individual is sovereign.

任何人的行为,只有涉及他人的那一部分才必须要对社会负责。在仅仅关涉他自己的那一部分,他的独立性照理说来就是绝对的。对于他自己,对于其身体和心灵,个人就是最高主权者。 (孟凡礼所译之 2011 版第 10 页)

The worth of a State, in the long run, is the worth of the individuals composing it; and a State which postpones the interests of their mental expansion and elevation, to a little more of administrative skill, or that semblance of it which practice gives, in the details of business; a State which dwarfs its men, in order that they may be more docile instruments in its hands even for beneficial purposes—will find that with small men no great thing can really be accomplished; and that the perfection of machinery to which it has sacrificed everything, will in the end avail it nothing, for want of the vital power which, in order that the machine might work more smoothly, it has preferred to banish.

从长远来看,国家的价值,归根结底还是组成这个国家的个人的价值;一个国家为了在各项具体事务中使管理更加得心应手,或为了从这种具体实践中获取更多类似技能,而把国民智力拓展和精神提升的利益放在一旁;一个国家为了要使它的人民成为它手中更为驯服的工具,哪怕是为了有益的目的,而使人民渺小,终将会发现,弱小的国民毕竟不能成就任何伟业;它为了达到机器的完善而不惜牺牲一切,到头来却将一无所获,因为它缺少活力,那活力已然为了机器更加顺利地运转而宁可扼杀掉了。 (孟凡礼所译之 2011 版第 138 页)

3. 四大自由(The Four Freedoms)

富兰克林·罗斯福(Franklin D. Roosevelt)提出的四大自由:言论自由、信仰自由、免于匮乏的自由、免于恐惧的自由。

The first is freedom of speech and expression - everywhere in the world.


The second is freedom of every person to worship God in his own way everywhere in the world.


The third is freedom from want, which, translated into world terms, means economic understandings which will secure to every nation a healthy peacetime life for its inhabitants - everywhere in the world.


The fourth is freedom from fear, which, translated into world terms, means a world-wide reduction of armaments to such a point and in such a thorough fashion that no nation will be in a position to commit an act of physical aggression against any neighbor - anywhere in the world.


—— Franklin D. Roosevelt(富兰克林·罗斯福),19410106

4. 世界人权宣言(Universal Declaration of Human Rights, UDHR)



Whereas recognition of the inherent dignity and of the equal and inalienable rights of all members of the human family is the foundation of freedom, justice and peace in the world,

Whereas disregard and contempt for human rights have resulted in barbarous acts which have outraged the conscience of mankind, and the advent of a world in which human beings shall enjoy freedom of speech and belief and freedom from fear and want has been proclaimed as the highest aspiration of the common people,

Whereas it is essential, if man is not to be compelled to have recourse, as a last resort, to rebellion against tyranny and oppression, that human rights should be protected by the rule of law,

The Article 1

All human beings are born free and equal in dignity and rights. They are endowed with reason and conscience and should act towards one another in a spirit of brotherhood.

The Article 19

Everyone has the right to freedom of opinion and expression; this right includes freedom to hold opinions without interference and to seek, receive and impart information and ideas through any media and regardless of frontiers.

—— Universal Declaration of Human Rights (UDHR), 1948

简体中文(Simplified Chinese)










—— 《世界人权宣言》,1948

5. 温饱、监狱与自由(The Food, Clothes, Prison and Freedom)

德怀特·艾森豪威尔(Dwight D. Eisenhower)(平民暂未能考证出原始出处):

If you want total security, go to prison. There you’re fed, clothed, given medical care and so on. The only thing lacking… is freedom.


6. 中国共产党在野党时期言论精选(Quotes of CPC Before 1949)

參見《中國共產黨在野黨時期言論精選(Quotes of CCP/CPC Before 1949)》。






(以上书籍链接皆检索于 20210311,如有失效,欢迎留言或通过iMessage、邮件等告知平民,谢谢!)



(1)20080604(大概):自 2007 年春季開學後不久買了電腦開始,因逐漸受自由、開放的開源文化的引導與影響,平民首次接觸“言論自由”和“憲法第三十五條”于大學在讀期间(2008)。
(4)20201222:添加《论自由(On Liberty)》摘錄內容。
(7)20210120:增加《世界人權宣言(Universal Declaration of Human Rights, UDHR)》相關內容與鏈接等。